5G

5G And Internet Of Things To Create Unprecedented Surveillance

Are citizens required to passively sit by while the manacles of scientific dictatorship are clamped around their necks? More people recognize the encroachment, but not enough to slow or stop it. ⁃ TN Editor

Convenience is the sales pitch, but the real goal is control in service of maximizing profits and extending state power.

When every device in your life is connected to the Internet (the Internet of Things), your refrigerator will schedule an oil change for your car–or something like that–and it will be amazingly wunnerful. You’ll be able to lower the temperature of your home office while you’re stuck in a traffic jam, while your fridge orders another jar of pickles delivered to your door.

It’s all in service of convenience, the god all Americans are brainwashed to worship. Imagine the convenience of turning on the light while seated on your sofa! Mind-boggling convenience at your fingertips–and since you’re already clutching your smart phone 24/7, convenience is indeed at your fingertips.

It’s also about control, and as we lose control of everything that’s actually important in our lives, the illusion of agency/control is a compelling pitch. Imagine being able to program your fridge to order a quart of milk delivered when it gets low but not order another jar of pickles when that gets low! Wow! That’s control, yowzah.

The Internet of Things is indeed about control–not your control, but control over you– control of what’s marketed to you, and control of your behaviors via control of the incentives, distractions and micro-decisions that shape behavior.

The control enabled by the Internet of Things starts with persuasion and quickly slides into coercion. Since corporations and government agencies will have a complete map of your movements, purchases, consumption, communications, etc., then behavior flagged as “non-beneficial” will be flagged for “nudging nags”, while “unsanctioned” behavior will be directed to the proper authorities.

Say you’re visiting a fast-food outlet for the fourth time in a week. Your health insurance corporation has set three visits a week as a maximum, lest your poor lifestyle choices start costing them money for treatments, so you get a friendly “reminder” to lay off the fast food or make “healthier” choices off the fast food menu.

Failure to heed the “nudges” will result in higher premiums or cancelled coverage. Sorry, pal, it’s just business. Your “freedom” doesn’t extend to costing us money.

Domestic corporate versions of China’s social credit score will proliferate. Here is evidence that such scores already exist:

Everyone’s Got A “Surveillance Score” And It Can Cost You Big Money (Zero Hedge)

Then there’s the surveillance. The Internet of Things isn’t just monitoring energy use and the quantity of milk in a fridge; it’s monitoring you–not just in your house, car and wherever you take your Personal Surveillance Device, i.e. your smart phone, but everywhere you go.

If you are a lookie-loo shopper–you browse the inventory but rarely buy anything–expect to be put in Category Three–zero customer service, and heightened surveillance in case your intent is to boost some goodies (shoplift).

Heaven help you if you start spending time reading shadow-banned websites like Of Two Minds: your social credit standing moves into the red zone, and your biometric scans at airports, concerts, retail centers etc., will attract higher scrutiny. You just can’t be too sure about people who stray off the reservation of “approved” corporate media.

Your impulses are easy to exploit: since every purchase is tracked, your vulnerabilities to impulse buys will be visible with a bit of routine Big Data analysis, and so the price of the treats you succumb to will go up compared to the indifferent consumer next to you. Sorry, pal, it’s just business. Your vulnerabilities, insecurities and weaknesses are profit centers. We’d be foolish not to exploit them to maximize profits, because that is the sole mission of global corporations.

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Privacy Concerns Grow As IoT Devices Light Up

The great majority of citizens do not trust the Internet of Things for two big reasons: lack of security and data privacy. Technocrats won’t correct this without legally mandated legislation. ⁃ TN Editor

The safety and security of internet of things (IoT) devices remains a vexing issue for lawmakers, while a survey from the Internet Society shows there is still some way to go before reaching widespread public acceptance of IoT connectivity.

The survey, conducted in six countries by polling firm IPSOS Mori, found that 65% of those surveyed are concerned with how connected devices collect data, while 55% do not trust those devices to protect their privacy. Meanwhile, 63% of those surveyed said they find IoT devices, which are projected to number in the tens of billions worldwide, to be “creepy.”

Those concerns were at the forefront of a hearing last week on IoT security by the U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation’s Subcommittee on Security, where lawmakers and witnesses debated how to make the devices safer and more transparent for consumers, and what the role of the federal government should be in legislating that. It’s a dilemma for policymakers and industry leaders who must wrestle with these questions.

“We can’t put the genie back in the bottle,” Internet Society president and CEO Andrew Sullivan told Smart Cities Dive. “We have invented this technology, so we’re going to have to figure out how to cope with it now. We have to figure out how are we going to make this technology something that better serves the people, the consumers who are buying it.”

Risks and concerns

Consumers are turning to internet-connected devices, and while they present enormous opportunities for convenience, they are not without risks.

In prepared testimony before the subcommittee, Robert Mayer, senior vice president for cybersecurity at the United States Telecom Association (USTelecom) said there is “ample evidence of IoT security vulnerabilities,” with incidents like cameras being used for spying, personal information being stolen and hackers taking control of devices like smart thermostats.

“Concerns of this kind can have a massive influence on public perception of technologies, and if not addressed in meaningful ways, trust in the digital ecosystem will erode, causing unpredictable levels of disruption and economic harm,” Mayer’s testimony reads.

There have already been several major hacks of IoT devices, including the Mirai DDoS botnet attack in October 2016 that rocked technology company Dyn and resulted in the dramatic slowing or bringing down of the internet across the East Coast and elsewhere in the world.

In written testimony, Mike Bergman, vice president of technology and standards at the Consumer Technology Association (CTA), warned of the international nature of the attack; 89.1% of the attack traffic originated from devices installed outside the United States, he said.

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Managing IoT Data Requires ‘Systems Of Systems’ To Break Silos

A isolated silo of data is unacceptable to the Technocracy mind, so the rush is on to develop ways to integrate disparate data systems into one. This is more easily said than done, but data is the life blood of Technocracy. ⁃ TN Editor

If cities are to effectively manage the vast amounts of data they collect from internet of things (IoT) devices, they need to take a holistic approach and break down silos, speakers said during a panel discussion at Smart Cities Connect in Denver last week.

All too often, city leaders are guilty of thinking of IoT initiatives — like smart lighting and smart parking — as isolated strategies. Instead, Rob Silverberg, Dell EMC’s chief technology officer for digital communities, said cities should use a “system of systems” in their IoT and data collection strategy and think about how, for example, smart parking fits into a wider goal of having smart transportation.

“What [cities are] starting to realize is that they’re implementing silos,” Silverberg told Smart Cities Dive in an interview after the panel discussion. “As they start to look at it more strategically, some of the cities have decided to establish more of a platform approach.”

It promises to be a difficult task for cities to manage the sheer amount of data they will be collecting through connected devices of all kinds. According to an estimate given during the panel, there could be as many as 200 billion connected devices worldwide by 2031, and it will be imperative for governments to be able to manage all the data gathered and use it in ways that will make its residents’ lives better. As cities experiment with initiatives like smart parking and smart lighting, they will need to work across departments to ensure that decisions are being made in the best way possible.

But that might be easier said than done. During the panel discussion, Portland, OR’s smart cities open data coordinator Hector Dominguez said while the city has worked extremely hard on its open data policy, including passing legislation supporting it, pitfalls remain. Portland uses a city commission form of government, meaning elected leaders are responsible for specific areas of policy, so there could be moments of confusion. Dominguez said despite the apparent separation of departments and policy that might undermine an open data push, work is underway to change that. “At this point every bureau is siloed and we have to create agreements to share data, which we’re working on right now. But it’s a challenge,” he said.

Cities have also expressed some reluctance to rely more on IoT devices and data due to privacy concerns raised by residents and leaders, some of whom are nervous about the idea of being surveilled by a government entity. But while the likes of facial recognition technology like Amazon’s Rekognition have come under fire, there are valid applications, and a good deal of people support its use in certain circumstances, according to public polls.

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iot

Global IoT Market To Reach $330 Billion By 2025

The Internet of Things in Smart Cities is growing at a rate of almost 23% per year, causing a feeding frenzy of Big Tech firms clamoring for their share. However, this is largely an artificial market created by Big Tech firms themselves, none of whom qualify as legitimate urban planners. ⁃ TN Editor

Zion Market Research has published a new report titled “IoT in Smart Cities Market by Component (Solution and Service), by Application (Lighting, Traffic, Utilities, Public Safety, Environmental Monitoring, and Others), and by End-User (Information and Technology, Telecommunication, Government, Automation, Energy, and Others): Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis, and Forecast, 2018–2025’’. According to the report, the global IoT in smart cities market was valued at around USD 79.3 billion in 2018 and is expected to reach approximately USD 330.1 billion by 2025, at a CAGR of slightly above 22.6% between 2019 and 2025.

The worldwide development of smart cities is trending majorly. Smart cities are formed by the integration of advanced technologies, such as geospatial technology, the blockchain, Internet of Things (IoT), and artificial intelligence, among others. Internet of Things (IoT) holds prime importance as compared to other IT technologies. In smart cities, IoT provides the perfect platform for uninterrupted communication of data that is generated from smart electronic devices.

According to a study, by 2050, more than 70% of the global population is anticipated to live in cities. This instantaneous urge of urbanization is constraining the existing infrastructure and has resulted in the rapid development of smart cities. To cope up with the rapidly emerging demand for smart cities, the worldwide adoption of IoT solutions is trending for communication enhancement, cost reduction, and advancement of services. Moreover, the rising number of smart connected devices is expected to create new growth opportunities for the IoT in smart cities market in the upcoming years. The worldwide smart city spending accounted for nearly USD 14.85 billion in 2015. However, the security and privacy issues related to IoT may hinder the IoT in smart cities market growth globally. IoT solutions are highly preferred for accurate communication and management of data generated from connected devices in smart cities.

The global IoT in smart cities market is segmented on the basis of component, application, and end-user. The component segment is majorly classified into solution and services. The solution segment includes security, remote monitoring, analytics, network management, and RTLS. By application, the market is classified into lighting, traffic, utilities, public safety, environmental monitoring, and others. Public safety is expected to grow remarkably over the forecast timeframe. By end-user, the market includes information and technology, telecommunication, government, automation, energy, and others. The information and technology segment is projected to dominate the market in the future.

North America is anticipated to dominate the global IoT in smart cities market in the future, owing to the significant presence of leading market players, strict government regulations, various technological advancements, and huge investments made for technological adoption. The U.S. is projected to hold the largest market share in the region, as it is the corporate headquarters of many prominent market players, such as IBM, Cisco, Intel, Microsoft, Honeywell, Schneider Electric, and Quantela. Furthermore, the penetration of smart electronic devices, such as smartphones that rely on IoT solutions, is primarily contributing to the IoT in smart cities market growth. Nearly 715 million units of IoT-based consumer electronic devices were installed in the U.S. recently.

The European IoT in smart cities market is mainly driven by the early adoption of innovative technologies. The European Union is taking substantial initiatives in smart city development for improvisation of urban lifestyle, which has concurrently escalated the market demand for IoT solutions. In 2017, nearly 33.1% of smart cities projects were pioneered by Europe, by initiating more than 84 projects. Moreover, the influence of IoT solutions for smart cities is peaking in the region. The European IoT sector is expected to account nearly USD 2,103 billion in the future.

Asia Pacific is likely to witness rapid IoT in smart cities market growth in the upcoming years, owing to the rising number of smart cities initiatives and various developments witnessed related to IoT solutions across the region. IoT solutions for smart cities are increasingly being adopted in developing Asian countries, such as India and China, for various applications including smart lighting, smart parking, smart waste management, and smart traffic management. In the region, South Korea holds a substantial market share due to the growing adoption of IoT devices. In 2016, South Korea accounted for nearly 18 million IoT connected devices and has the region’s highest number of IoT connected devices.

In Latin America, IoT solutions are significantly adopted for traffic management in smart cities. This can be attributed to the increasing automotive concentration and the implementation of various IoT-based traffic solutions in the region. The growing IoT spending is likely to play a vital role in driving the region’s IoT in smart cities market. Numerous programs have been initiated by the government for traffic control due to the increasing rate of vehicle congestion across the region. The escalating IoT spending is significantly driving the IoT in smart cities market in the Middle East and Africa. Over the forecast time period, 15% growth in the region’s IoT spending is anticipated.

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Total Data Domination: 5G, IoT, AI Surveillance And The Smart City

In 1932, Aldous Huxley foresaw a Scientific Dictatorship in his book, Brave New World. In 2019, Huxley’s dystopian future is appearing right before our eyes, but few recognize it. ⁃ TN Editor

By Patrick Wood

People who have a modern smartphone normally think of 5G as nothing more than a progression from 3G and 4G. Offering fewer dropped calls, faster data transfer, and more convenience. 5G is the fifth generation of wireless technology.

This thinking barely scratches the surface. There must be a greater reason why CEOs of major cellular carriers are breaking their necks to railroad the fastest implementation in history of a new communication standard.

This reason has little to do with your personal cellphone and everything to do with the so-called Internet of Things (IoT) where all electronic devices will be connected together in real-time. Collectively, the IoT is the core technology used to implement Smart City makeovers.

“Real time” is a magical tech term. 5G is at least one order of magnitude faster than anything before it. It is comparable to everything being connected directly by fiber-optic cable where as soon as you touch the send key, your data transmission is received at the other end, faster than a blink of your eye.

Let’s do some math. 4G can transfer data at 100,000,000 bits per second (which is 10 megabits per second). That’s really fast! However, 5G blows out the same data at 10,000,000,000 bits per second, or 10 Gbps (Gigabits per second). This is 100 times faster than 4G. Secondly, 4G has a typical “ping” factor between 10ms and 50ms (milliseconds) that measures the time needed in order to send a single packet of information. 5G drops that time to 1ms.

In spite of the cutthroat American race between wireless providers like AT&T, Verizon and T-Mobile, China has declared that it intends to emerge as the global leader on 5G rollout to its own 1.4 billion citizens. China is also mass-producing the technology to sell to the rest of the world.

In the U.S., 5G is being heavily promoted by the Trump Administration. The Federal Communications Commission issued a ruling in September that blocks cities from charging higher fees for installing 5G infrastructure. Loud protests have been registered from the U.S. Conference of Mayors, the National Association of Counties, the National Governors Association and the Nation Conference of State Legislatures. Why? Because the FCC’s actions are unconstitutional and cities are being stripped of the little sovereignty they have left. Thus far, the FCC is undeterred in its position.

Smart City technology is brought to us exclusively by Big Tech corporations in the name of Technocracy and Sustainable Development. With the advent of sophisticated Artificial Intelligence (AI) programs, massive amounts of data collected from sensors of all types can be analyzed in real-time, displaying the results in a multi-dimensional model. What are sensors? Cameras, microphones, self-driving vehicles, license-plate readers, cell phones, Bluetooth devices, Smart Meters and all connected devices in Smart Homes.

Thanks to real-time connections between autonomous vehicles, road censors and central computers equipped with AI, they will be able to navigate any and all roadways with authority and impunity. They will also inform on you every inch of the way.

In China, where all of this massive surveillance is weaponized against civilians, Technocrats have implemented a Social Credit Score assigned by algorithm, to all 1.4 billion inhabitants. By 2020, China intends to have 600 million facial recognition cameras installed, or about one camera for every 4 citizens. All of them will transmit their images in real-time to central computers running sophisticated AI programs. Each person in the big-data database will have their personal data pulled from every conceivable location in the nation. By the time that they know who you are, what you are, what you do, what you think and what you intend to do, their AI algorithms will calculate and assign to you a Social Credit Score that will limit or expand whatever privileges you will have from that time on.

The Social Credit Score system is coming to America as well, unless we somehow convince our own officials that this is a horrible idea that will utterly destroy the American dream.

Nothing has changed in the 85 years since Technocracy, Inc. defined its original mission in 1938:

Technocracy is the science of social engineering, the scientific operation of the entire social mechanism to produce and distribute goods and services to the entire population.

Scoffers may argue that history does not mean anything and there is no relevance to modern times. If they understood history, they would not say such a thing. For instance, consider ‘ride-sharing’ schemes where nobody owns a vehicle and everyone shares a common pool of community owned autos. This idea is not new. Technocrats had it in their sights as early as 1934:

The Automotive Branch of Transportation would provide a network of garages at convenient places all over the country from which automobiles could be had at any hour of the night or day. No automobiles would be privately owned. When one wished to use an automobile he would merely call the garage, present his driver’s license, and a car of the type needed would be assigned to him. ‘When he was through with the car, he would return it either to the same garage or to any other garage that happened to be convenient, and surrender his Energy Certificates in payment for the cost incurred while he was using it.

I will suggest that the modern world cannot be even remotely understood except in terms of Technocracy and its inevitable outcome: Scientific Dictatorship. Every major meme in global geo-politics, economics and globalization, devolution of national sovereignty, etc., is dancing to the Technocrat drumbeat.

As to today, 5G is about to deliver the ultimate tool for total control over Americans, and it has nothing to do with your cell phones getting a speed upgrade.

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Consumer Warning: Internet Of Things Is Security Nightmare

IoT promises Utopia but delivers a security train wreck. Consumers have virtually no chance of securely setting up a Smart Home because Technocrats have totally underestimated complexity and anti-hacking security.  ⁃ TN Editor

When a major electronics firm started seeing strange documents being printed out remotely on more than 100 of its smart printers late last year, it frantically contacted the manufacturer to investigate.

The firm nervously wondered how — and why — an unauthorized third party was sending documents to its printers remotely. And worse, it feared its entire corporate network had been breached. The manufacturer immediately called in the big guns, Charles Henderson, global head of X-Force Red, a professional hacking team at IBM Security, for answers.

“Unless you believe in ghosts, you get kind of concerned when your printer just starts printing stuff out that you can’t account for,” said Henderson, who declined to name the firm for privacy reasons.

His team quickly identified the problem as a flaw in the printer’s remote access function, and a patch fixed the vulnerability.

Finding and testing for flaws and breaches in smart devices is Henderson’s specialty. “I run a team of hackers,” is how Henderson describes his role, then clarifying they are paid professional hackers who look for bugs, glitches, and malfunctions.

And with demand for smart devices, ranging from smart lights to outdoor sprinklers, surging in mainstream America, his job has gotten a lot busier.

“We’ve received roughly five times the number of requests for security testing of IoT [internet of things] devices in the last year,” Henderson said. “Growth has been immense over the last year to 18 months.”

Indeed, the soaring popularity of smart speakers, like Amazon Echo and Google Home, is starting to move the “Smart Home” into mainstream America. It’s no longer just tech geeks and phone-obsessed millennials who are scouring the tech universe for information on the next best gadget that lets them control lights, TVs, appliances, door locks, and even lawn sprinklers with a voice command or tap on a smartphone.

But all of this buzz and hype are putting pressure on smart device makers to rush their gadgets into the market while demand is hot — and sometimes, this means security features take a back seat, Henderson said. And cyber criminals are watching.

“Criminals rob banks because that’s where the money is,” said Charles Golvin, senior research director at Gartner, a research and advisory firm. “They’ll commit cyber crimes because that’s where the opportunity is.”

Some get crafty, making mock interfaces on a person’s phone that look like an IoT’s interface login to steal passwords — similar to the way thieves send fake emails to people pretending to be from credit card companies and banks.

Experts caution consumers to research carefully and move diligently when adding smart devices to their home network. “If one device gets compromised, it could be the same as allowing an attacker to plug into the entire network,” giving the criminalcontrol over all devices, Henderson warned.

Concerns about privacy and the complexity of smart home devices are two reasons fully outfitted smart homes are not likely to happen overnight, experts say.

Wanting — and actually installing — smart devices are very different scenarios with the latter requiring patience and diligent research in navigating through a costly, cumbersome and often time-consuming process.

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Internet Of Bodies: Creepy New Platform For Data Discovery

Technocrats are moving from collecting external data about you to collecting data from inside you, underscoring the point that there is no level of detail that satisfies a Technocrat. From the macrocosm to the microcosm, every piece of data must be collected. ⁃ TN Editor

In the Era of the Internet of Things, we’ve become (at least somewhat) comfortable with our refrigerators knowing more about us than we know about ourselves and our Apple watches transmitting our every movement. The Internet of Things has even made it into the courtroom in cases such as the hot tub saga of Amazon Echo’s Alexa in State v. Bates and an unfortunate wife’s Fitbit in State v. Dabate.

But the Internet of Bodies?

Yes, that’s right. It’s gone beyond the mere snooping of a smart TV. Data discovery has entered a new realm, and our bodies are the platform.

A January 5 program at the Annual Meeting of the Association of American Law Schools (AALS) in New Orleans entitled, The Internet of Bodies: Cyborgs and the Law, discussed the legal, regulatory, and societal impact of this new living and breathing platform for data discovery.

Internet of Bodies?

First things first: What is the Internet of Bodies?

“The Internet of Bodies refers to the legal and policy implications of using the human body as a technology platform,” said Northeastern University law professor Andrea Matwyshyn, who works also as co-director of Northeastern’s Center for Law, Innovation, and Creativity (CLIC).

“In brief, the Internet of Things (IoT) is moving onto and inside the human body, becoming the Internet of Bodies (IoB),” Matwyshyn added.

Joining Matwyshyn on the AALS panel were moderator Christina Mulligan, professor of law and vice dean at Brooklyn Law School; Nancy Kim, professor at California Western School of Law; and Robert Heverly, associate professor at Albany Law School. Elizabeth Rowe, professor of law and director of the intellectual property law program at the University of Florida Levin College of Law, assisted in the development of the program.

The Internet of Bodies is not merely a theoretical discussion of what might happen in the future. It’s happening already.

Former U.S. Vice President Dick Cheney revealed in 2013 that his physicians ordered the wireless capabilities of his heart implant disabled out of concern for potential assassin hackers, and in 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recalled almost half a million pacemakers over security issues requiring a firmware update.

It’s not just former vice presidents and heart patients becoming part of the Internet of Bodies. Northeastern’s Matwyshyn notes that so-called “smart pills” with sensors can report back health data from your stomach to smartphones, and a self-tuning brain implant is being tested to treat Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s.

So, what’s not to like?

Better with Bacon?

“We are attaching everything to the Internet whether we need to or not,” Matwyshyn said, calling it the “Better with Bacon” problem, noting that—as bacon has become a popular condiment in restaurants—chefs are putting it on everything from drinks to cupcakes.

“It’s great if you love bacon, but not if you’re a vegetarian or if you just don’t like bacon. It’s not a bonus,” Matwyshyn added.

Matwyshyn’s bacon analogy raises interesting questions: Do we really need to connect everything to the Internet? Do the data privacy and data protection risks outweigh the benefits?

The Northeastern Law professor divides these IoB devices into three generations: 1) “body external” devices, such as Fitbits and Apple watches, 2) “body internal” devices, including Internet-connected pacemakers, cochlear implants, and digital pills, and 3) “body embedded” devices, hardwired technology where the human brain and external devices meld, where a human body has a real time connection to a remote machine with live updates.

Chip Party for Chipped Employees

A Wisconsin company, Three Square Market, made headlines in 2017—including an appearance on The Today Show—when the company microchipped its employees, not unlike what veterinarians do with the family pet. Not surprisingly, the company touted the benefits of implanting microchips under the skin of employees, including being able to wave one’s hand at a door instead of having to carry a badge or use a password.

CNBC reported that 50 of Three Square Market’s 80 employees volunteered to have the microchips implanted under their skin, and they even had a so-called chip party, where the  radio frequency identification (RFID) microchips—about the size of a grain of rice—were injected into the employees.

However, where the employees really “volunteers”?

California Western’s Kim noted that consent is an important issue for the Internet of Bodies and that it’s an especially challenging issue when the IoB involves employees, who depend on their employers for a paycheck.

In addition, she thinks that having the chip party was a really bad idea.

“I think it impedes the consent condition of voluntariness. They should not have had a chip party on their premises. It shouldn’t be onsite where everyone knows who got chipped and who didn’t. It’s coercive in its nature even if it’s not a mandatory requirement,” Kim said.

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Ford To Deploy 5G Vehicle-To-Everything Tech By 2022

Ford Motor Company will be the first to use 5G to enable ubiquitous communication between autos, traffic signals, cell phones. This also gives a clue as to when 5G will be fully rolled out to the nation. ⁃ TN Editor

Don Butler, executive director of the Ford Connected Vehicle Platform and Product, announced in a Medium post on Monday that Ford has committed to deploy cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) technology  in all new U.S. vehicle models starting in 2022.

The C-V2X tech will allow equipped vehicles to “talk” to and “listen” to each other, as well as directly connect with traffic management infrastructure (such as traffic lights). Pedestrians can also use their mobile phones to convey their locations to vehicles, making roads safer for walkers and cyclists.

“Driver-assist technologies today and autonomous vehicles of the future utilize on-board sensors much in the way people use their eyes to navigate complex environments,” Butler wrote. “C-V2X could complement these systems in ways similar to how our sense of hearing complements our vision to improve our ability to operate in a complex world.”

5G isn’t just changing how society will utilize the internet — it’s also transforming how vehicles can connect with their surrounding environment. The C-V2X platform will run on 5G and complement any existing LiDAR, radar and camera sensors for a “comprehensive view” of the road and infrastructure. According to Butler, the timing of this effort by Ford is “perfect,” considering the cellular industry’s push toward building 5G networks. However, the road ahead is still long — Ford acknowledges it must work with fellow automakers and government organizations in order to “create such a technology-neutral environment.”

Successful deployment would significantly impact pedestrian safety and traffic accidents. As cities invest in Vision Zero efforts, there may be advantages to working with automakers such as Ford to enhance these technologies and ensure that they fit into the city’s overall safety goals.

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Should A Self-Driving Car Kill The Baby Or The Grandma?

Different cultures give different answers, and the there is obviously no rigid commonality between nations. When AI programs are created, however, they must start with a moral judgement as to how their programs will behave. ⁃ TN Editor
 

The infamous “trolley problem” was put to millions of people in a global study, revealing how much ethics diverge across cultures.

In 2014 researchers at the MIT Media Lab designed an experiment called Moral Machine. The idea was to create a game-like platform that would crowdsource people’s decisions on how self-driving cars should prioritize lives in different variations of the “trolley problem.” In the process, the data generated would provide insight into the collective ethical priorities of different cultures.

The researchers never predicted the experiment’s viral reception. Four years after the platform went live, millions of people in 233 countries and territories have logged 40 million decisions, making it one of the largest studies ever done on global moral preferences.

new paper published in Nature presents the analysis of that data and reveals how much cross-cultural ethics diverge on the basis of culture, economics, and geographic location.

The classic trolley problem goes like this: You see a runaway trolley speeding down the tracks, about to hit and kill five people. You have access to a lever that could switch the trolley to a different track, where a different person would meet an untimely demise. Should you pull the lever and end one life to spare five?

The Moral Machine took that idea to test nine different comparisons shown to polarize people: should a self-driving car prioritize humans over pets, passengers over pedestrians, more lives over fewer, women over men, young over old, fit over sickly, higher social status over lower, law-abiders over law-benders? And finally, should the car swerve (take action) or stay on course (inaction)?

Rather than pose one-to-one comparisons, however, the experiment presented participants with various combinations, such as whether a self-driving car should continue straight ahead to kill three elderly pedestrians or swerve into a barricade to kill three youthful passengers. 

The researchers found that countries’ preferences differ widely, but they also correlate highly with culture and economics. For example, participants from collectivist cultures like China and Japan are less likely to spare the young over the old—perhaps, the researchers hypothesized, because of a greater emphasis on respecting the elderly.

Similarly, participants from poorer countries with weaker institutions are more tolerant of jaywalkers versus pedestrians who cross legally. And participants from countries with a high level of economic inequality show greater gaps between the treatment of individuals with high and low social status.

And, in what boils down to the essential question of the trolley problem, the researchers found that the sheer number of people in harm’s way wasn’t always the dominant factor in choosing which group should be spared. The results showed that participants from individualistic cultures, like the UK and US, placed a stronger emphasis on sparing more lives given all the other choices—perhaps, in the authors’ views, because of the greater emphasis on the value of each individual. 

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China Seeks Global Control Over Internet Of Things For Spying, Business

As a Technocracy, China is only doing what is natural to them: dominating the world of data collection, surveillance and control. The Western world has completely missed China’s nefarious intentions as it has embedded Chinese technology as all levels of society. ⁃ TN Editor

China is aggressively seeking to dominate the Internet of Things and plans to use access to billions of networked electronic devices for intelligence-gathering, sabotage, and business purposes, according to a forthcoming congressional report.

China for nearly a decade has been investing heavily in the emerging technology on the Internet of Things (IoT) and has made outpacing similar U.S. efforts one of the ruling Communist Party of China’s highest strategic goals.

“China’s unique approach to the development of IoT and its enabling infrastructure poses significant challenges for U.S. economic and national security interests,” says a report by the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission due out Thursday.

“The highest echelons of the Chinese regime view IoT development and deployment as critical matters of China’s economic competitiveness and national security.”

A major concern outlined in the report is China’s efforts to uncover vulnerabilities in IoT systems that can be used by Beijing for strategic objectives in both peacetime and war, the report said.

“Aside from industrial control systems, unauthorized access to health care devices could kill patients and exploitation of smart car vulnerabilities could kill drivers and pedestrians alike, among other examples of possible misuse of data and devices that could have dire consequences,” the report warns.

“The future destructive potential of unauthorized access to IoT devices appears potentially limitless.”

The IoT is an ill-defined term for a global information and communication infrastructure. It is made up of linked devices ranging from biomedical devices for monitoring patients to self-driving cars to critical infrastructure.

The universe of IoT devices includes billions of electronic systems such as, video cameras, smart phones and smart watches, and industrial control systems used in electric grids.

Chinese IoT objectives include building “smart cities” that monitor public utilities, flows of people and traffic, underground pipelines, and air and water quality, the report said.

Other Chinese IoT plans include advanced remote industrial controls; medical IoTs; smart homes equipped with remote controls for appliances and security systems; and smart cars linking vehicle sensors to drivers, roads, cloud services, and other electronic devices.

The IoT is expanding rapidly and will be further enhanced with emerging advanced information technologies, such 5G cellular technology.

Use of 5G networks will increase the ability of networked devices to interact through faster data transfer speeds.

China, according to the report, is working on major programs to find vulnerabilities in IoT technology ostensibly for cyber security.

However, the report suggests the research is cover for plans to conduct for cyber espionage, sabotage, and military cyber reconnaissance using the Internet of Things.

One example of an IoT cyber attack took place in 2016 when the malware known as the Mirai botnet infiltrated thousands of linked devices by scanning the Internet for video cameras—most made in China—and DVRs that were not protected and easily accessed by using default passwords such as “password.”

Mirai “commandeered some one hundred thousand of these devices, and used them to carry out a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack against DynDNS that shut down many popular websites,” the report said.

A second botnet called IoTroop targeted several brands of Chinese-made Internet Protocol cameras in late 2017.

A Chinese case discovered in 2016 by security researchers revealed that firmware update software made by the Shanghai ADUPS Technology Co. Ltd. was secretly siphoning off private data and sending it to China.

“ADUPS’s firmware update software is currently in use on more than 700 million low-end mobile phones and IoT devices around the globe, including devices in the United States,” the report said.

Chinese IoT researchers also are preparing to use cyber attacks against the “Internet of Underwater Things” that has applications for submarine warfare.

“The imperfect availability of enemy location information in underwater warfare offers a strategic advantage to any nation with advanced underwater sensor technology, and compromised IoT devices and sensor networks operating underwater at a variety of depths could nullify any such advantage,” the report said.

China also is preparing to use the IoT for intelligence gathering and network reconnaissance—the first step in cyber war.

“Personnel from several of the PLA’s signals intelligence units have published multiple articles on IoT security-related topics, suggesting that these units have likely already exploited device vulnerabilities for these ends,” the report said.

The Chinese military’s cyber and computer attack force has written journal articles discussing the use of “emissions from IoT devices as possible avenues for side-channel attacks and listing location tracking features and internet connections as other weak points for exploitation,” the report said.

“The PLA’s operational cyber warfare units have also previously shown direct interest in exploiting IoT security vulnerabilities for offensive information warfare,” the report said, such as IoT data collection and cellphone-transmitted viruses.

A PLA electronic warfare report said smart cars are very vulnerable to attack and unauthorized access through their internal car wireless sensor networks, car-mounted controller area network buses, car-mounted local area networking, car software applications, car-mounted onboard diagnostic systems, and smart tire-pressure monitoring systems.

China is also using the IoT to boost its mass internal security surveillance capabilities to control the Chinese people, the report said.

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