Thailand Can Be Smart-City Flagship For China’s Belt And Road
Asian cities and nations are racing toward Technocracy, following in China’s vision to establish a digital silk road. China’s President Xo Jinping says that a city which is not green is not smart. China is already home to 277 smart cities. ⁃ TN Editor
At a recent Asean and China mayoral conference held in Nanning, Guangxi province, one of us (LHM) presented the concept of smart cities and its importance for Asean.
It generated much interest from the audience, among which was former Thai deputy prime minister Korn Dabbaransi. Korn noted the significance of smart-city thinking for Thailand’s burgeoning urban areas, such as Chiang Mai.
The UN projects that by 2050, the world’s urban population will reach an astounding 5.3 billion, or 70 per cent of the global population.
It is now obvious that making cities “smart” and eco-friendly is no longer a luxury but a necessity.
A smart city is one that integrates the Internet and communication technology with the Internet of Things (IoT).
The result is what we term the “omnipresent economy”.
President Xi Jinping laid out China’s vision for smart cities at the BRI (Belt and Road Initiative) Forum for International Cooperation on May 14-15: “We should advance the development of big data, cloud computing and smart cities to transform them into a 21st-century digital silk road. It is also fundamental for humanity that the development must incorporate ‘green’ development, which includes … low-carbon, circular and sustainable ways and means.”
What Xi is saying is very clear: A city which is not green is not smart.
The smart-cities concept emerged with the rapid development of the “information trinity” – network, computer and data storage – two decades ago.
E-government and e-society quickly became hot topics, spurred by early initiatives like the “EZ-pass” for vehicles on superhighways in the United States.
Now, the boom in IoT, telecom, wireless networks and cloud computing has placed smart government, lifestyles and industry at the centre stage of urban development.
Mega-cities such as New York, London, Tokyo and Paris already boast blueprints for smart development.
Yet nowhere is this trend more evident than in China, which is home to 277 smart cities with three more in the works. Under the BRI, China and its companies can now join with cities abroad as equal partners to also render them “smart”.
This effort can be boosted by Chinese tech giants like Alibaba and Tencent, but also by lesser-known innovators such as the Beijing-based “Carsmart”. This company provides high-tech services ranging from public safety to “smart” systems for parking, sanitation, logistics, usage-based insurance, and transportation.
Deep understanding of local lifestyles and needs has enabled Carsmart to spread from Chinese cities to aid development of smart cities in Pakistan, Malaysia, Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Britain.
These cities all have certain features in common.
The first is public safety, underpinned by the idea that only under smart governance can safe and smart cities exist.
The Future Of US Military: A Giant, Armed Nervous System
The global battlefield will radically change as the military connects every conceivable asset and enemy in the world. In other words, it will be a ‘giant, armed nervous system.’ This is the same Technocrat dream for society as a whole where everything is interconnected to mimic a human nervous system. ⁃ TN Editor
Leaders of the Air Force, Navy, Army and Marines are converging on a vision of the future military: connecting every asset on the global battlefield.
That means everything from F-35 jets overhead to the destroyers on the sea to the armor of the tanks crawling over the land to the multiplying devices in every troops’ pockets. Every weapon, vehicle, and device connected, sharing data, constantly aware of the presence and state of every other node in a truly global network. The effect: an unimaginably large cephapoloidal nervous system armed with the world’s most sophisticated weaponry.
In recent months, the Joint Chiefs of Staff put together the newest version of their National Military Strategy. Unlike previous ones, it is classified. But executing a strategy requiring buy-in and collaboration across the services. In recent months, at least two of the service chiefs talked openly about the strikingly similar direction that they are taking their forces. Standing before a sea of dark- blue uniforms at a September Air Force Association event in Maryland, Air Force Chief of Staff Gen. David Goldfein said he had “refined” his plans for the Air Force after discussions with the Joint Chiefs “as part of the creation of the classified military strategy.”
The future for the Air Force? The service needed to be more like a certain electric-car manufacturer.
“Every Tesla car is connected to every other Tesla car,” said Goldfein, referring to a presentation by Elon Musk about the ways his firm’s vehicles learn from their collective experience. “If a Tesla is headed down the road and hits a pothole, every Tesla that’s behind it that’s self-driving, it will avoid the pothole, immediately. If you’re driving the car, it automatically adjusts your shocks in case you hit it, too.”
Goldfein waxed enthusiastically about how Tesla was able to remotely increase the battery capacity of cars in the U.S.Southeast to facilitate evacuation before the recent hurricanes.
“What would the world look like if we connected what we have in that way? If we looked at the world through a lens of a network as opposed to individual platforms, electronic jamming shared immediately, avoided automatically? Every three minutes, a mobility aircraft takes off somewhere on the planet. Platforms are nodes in a network,” the Air Force chief said.
The idea borrows from the “network centric warfare” concept that seized the military imagination more than a decade ago. But what leaders are today describing is larger by orders of magnitude. It’s less a strategy for integrating multiple networks into operations more efficiently than a plan to stitch everything, networks within networks, into a single web. The purpose: better coordinated, faster, and more lethal operations in air, land, sea, space, and cyberspace.
So the Air Force is making broad investments in data sharing. Maj. Gen. Kimberly A. Crider, the service’s first data officer,is setting up a series of experimental tests in the Nevada desert at Nellis Air Force Base near Las Vegas, seeking to better understand “what happens when we actually connect into this resilient and agile network” said Goldfein. The Air Force’s current experimentation with next-generation light tactical attack aircraft are as much about hardware as networks, he said. “Not only what can I buy and what can they do, but more importantly, can they connect? Can they actually share? And can we tie it to a new network that’s based on sharable information that gets me beyond the challenges I have right now in terms of security?”
Geo-Engineering: Scientists ‘Able To Control The Weather Using Lasers’
Technocrats assume that technology must be used to modify the weather to their liking, but they didn’t ask anyone else for an opinion because the ‘science is settled.’ Technocrats invent because they can, not because there is a real need to do so. The military has been experimenting with weather modification as a weapon of war for decades. ⁃ TN Editor
Scientists have discovered a bizarre way to potentially control the weather using laser beams and could potentially beat the threat of droughts, it has been revealed.
A six year drought in California was finally declared over this year but the threat for the south-western state as well as other locations in the world remains the same.
But scientists may now be able to induce rain and lightning storms using high energy lasers in a breakthrough that could potentially eradicate droughts throughout the globe.
The possibility of condensation, lightning and storms are ever present in the clouds and are containED through high amounts of static electricity.***
Experts from the University of Central Florida and the University of Arizona believe that by firing a series of laser beams, they can activate the static electricity and induce rain and storms.
One beam would be fired, and this beam would be surrounded by another beam which acts as an energy reservoir – which will allow the laser to be sustained for longer and prevent dissipation.
Laser beams can travel vast distances, but “when a laser beam becomes intense enough, it behaves differently than usual – it collapses inward on itself,” said Matthew Mills, a graduate student in the Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers (CREOL).
He said: “The collapse becomes so intense that electrons in the air’s oxygen and nitrogen are ripped off creating plasma – basically a soup of electrons.”
When it reaches that point, the laser tries to spread the beam out and eventually collapses in on itself.
This struggle is known as “filamentation” and creates a “light string” that only lasts for a short time before it disperses.
Mr Mills said: “Because a filament creates excited electrons in its wake as it moves, it artificially seeds the conditions necessary for rain and lightning to occur.
Tipping Point: The Global Journey From Cash to Cashless
The ‘Cashless Journey’ is a global initiative of Technocrat, globalist bankers, who use governments with statements like: ‘Governments can speed the journey.’ In fact, Technocrats despise government except for how they can use them to manipulate the citizenry to buy into their globalist pipe-dreams. ⁃ TN Editor
Today, around 85% of all retail payment transactions are done with cash, which equates to 60% of retail transaction value. Even though much of the world’s population has access to many different options for making payments other than cash, cash still persists. Cash takes time to get at, is riskier to carry, and by most estimates, cash costs society as much as 1.5% of GDP. Electronic payments, on the other hand, have been proven to boost economic growth, while advancing financial inclusion. It is for these reasons that countries around the world are working to make their payment systems less dependent on cash.
The Cashless Journey Study was developed to track nations’ progress towards more cashless economies. It offers insights into how some nations have made the journey from cash to cashless, and how other nations can continue their journeys. The study helps to shape the conversation about consumer payment patterns across countries around the globe. The information it provides was designed to assess the impact of different factors, such as regulatory measures or financial inclusion initiatives, on changes to these patterns. The study explores the evolution of consumer payment patterns in 33 countries from five regions, representing more than 85% of global GDP, taking into account both developed and developing nations, using a single methodology.
A Focus On The Value Of Consumer Payments
Government, banks and payment networks all look at cash usage and broader payment habits through different lenses. MasterCard looks at payments through different lenses, depending on the audience, product or region. The Cashless Journey Study chose a consistent global methodology focusing on consumer payments, or payments initiated by individuals. Consumer payments for goods and services account for about 11% of the value of payments around the globe, but more than 90% of volume of payments (or number of transactions). The study focuses on the value of consumer payments ($63 trillion in total spend), rather than the volume of payments (total transactions), as estimates of payments value are more readily available, and have also been found to be more representative of broader trends in payments preference. Finally, it should be noted that this study looks at all consumer payments, including those that happen beyond retail point of sale. This is an important consideration to underscore, as by including non-retail categories like housing and bill payment, the total figure for consumer payments is far larger than the value of retail point of sale payments. So, while cash accounts for 60% of the value of total retail payments in shops or online, when these other large consumer payments (e.g. wire transfer to buy a car, direct debit to pay mortgage) are included, the value of payments represented by cash falls to 34%.
The Cashless Journey Study measures nations’ progress towards more modern, efficient payment processes by looking at the current share of cash versus non-cash payments for consumers (Share), how this Share has shifted in the past five years (Trajectory), and whether conditions exist for cash payments to move to electronic (Readiness). The study measures three indicators of progress:
Share: the percentage of the value of all consumer payments that are presently done by a means other than cash
Trajectory: a measure of the shift in cash share of consumer payments’ value between 2006 and 2011
Readiness: a measure of the future potential for conversion of cash payments to electronic payments based on macro-economic preconditions observed in highly cashless markets
Thousands Rally Globally To Mark Second Anniversary of UN´s SDGs
Evidence that 2030 Agenda did not arise from the citizenry: “…goals will only be implemented if people demand action by their governments.” In fact, the 2030 Agenda was created by a very narrow elite and then marketed to UN member states. ⁃ TN Editor
Two years ago on 25 September 2015, 193 governments agreed to an action plan to end poverty, protect the planet and foster international peace by adopting the UN´s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
To mark the anniversary, thousands of people participated in over 850 events across 110 countries to raise awareness for the goals and to hold governments accountable for their slow rollout of national implementation programs.
“The goals will only be implemented if people demand action by their governments” said Beckie Malay from the Global Call to Action Against Poverty (GCAP), who organised an event with university students in Manila, Philippines
Community events were held all shapes and sizes, with marches, panel discussions, art performances, lesson plans and an #Act4SDGs social media conversation that reached over 80 million people. Central to these actions, was the recognition that the most marginalised groups of people require priority access to the resources and programs being mobilised by the goals.
“Today we should be celebrating, but the situation is worrying. Social injustices are increasing and people are going hungry again” commented Salina Sanou of Action for Sustainable Development in Kenya. Last week, the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) announced that despite a steady decline in recent years, 815 million people suffered from hunger in 2016 – 38 million more than 2015. This is unacceptable in these times of over-production and over-consumption in rich countries, says Sanou. “It is time to break the cycle of inequality in all our systems.”
Standing in front of a large pink elephant in front of the EU’s headquarters in Brussels, Ingo Ritz, coordinator of the Global Day of Action, pointed out that the European Commission was very supportive when the Agenda 2030 was negotiated. “However, now the EU leadership is not seriously interested and the SDGs have become the elephant in the room. They cannot afford to ignore them – making Europe sustainable for all will be key for the legitimacy of the EU.”
Assisted Suicide Rising: Reducing C02 Output One Person At A Time
Draped in the language of faux-mercy, the Technocrat mind values human life only according its current contribution to society. Their efficiency ratio plummets because of the elderly, the poor, the crippled and mentally handicapped. In short, eugenics is back and is far more dangerous to life than past movements. ⁃ TN Editor
I am grateful to Reps. Luis Correa (D-Calif), Juan Vargas (D-Calif), James Langevin (D-R.I.), Daniel Lipinski (D-Ill.), Brad Wenstrup (R-Ohio), Ralph Lee Abraham (R-La.), Darin LaHood (R-Ill.), and Andy Harris (R-Md.) for introducing a Sense of Congress resolution that takes a big step toward protecting me and many others from a death-too-soon by assisted suicide.
When assisted suicide becomes accepted public policy it threatens the lives of everyone, especially the poor, elderly, mentally ill, disabled, and terminally ill. Why? Well, for starters, abuse is unavoidable and doctors are fallible. Assisted suicide policy also injects government insurers and private insurance companies with financial incentives into every single person’s end of life decisions.
One supposed “safeguard” built into assisted suicide laws is that a patient be given a prognosis of six months or less to live to qualify. But people with serious or terminal illnesses outlive their prognoses every day.
After I was diagnosed with grade 4 glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), I was expected to live for only four months. The surgeon said my cancer was inoperable and three different doctors told me there was nothing they could do. I would have easily met the criteria for accessing assisted suicide if I lived in a state like Oregon or California, where assisted suicide is legal.
In a dark moment, I might have opted for it, but I am fortunate to have a supportive family, and was given the opportunity to pursue cutting edge, experimental treatment instead. Here I am three years later, enjoying the arrival of our second son and living life to the fullest.
Even the most experienced doctor cannot predict with certainty how long a patient battling serious illness will live or when they might fall into treatable depression in the course of their illness.
A serious or terminal diagnosis, illness-induced disability, or a fear of being a burden can cause clinical depression in a significant number of patients. But, the 2016 Oregon Health Report shows that in Oregon only 4 percent of patients considering ending their lives were referred for psychological evaluation — yet a 2008 study showed that 25 percent of patients requesting assisted suicide suffered from major depressive disorder. These numbers suggest that persons with mental illness could well be prescribed a death-too-soon, rather than treatment for depression.
Several of those people tragically went on to receive the lethal drugs instead of treatment for their depression. Clearly, psychological distress in terminally ill patients is underdiagnosed and undertreated, placing these patients at great risk.
How The Internet Of Things, 5G And AI will Transform Europe
This Nov. 8th conference in Brussels is sponsored by Huawei, a China electronics giant with tight connections to China’s government. Since China is already operating as a Technocracy, Huawei know full well how to transform Europe. ⁃ TN Editor
Rapid advances in mobile connectivity and artificial intelligence are bringing about a step change in automation that is transforming both individual organisations and entire industries.
The widespread usage of smartphones and the expanding Internet of Things are enabling computer scientists to capture and analyse vast amounts of information that can be used to train machines. Software can sift through these massive data samples, drawing on the extraordinary computational power now available in the cloud, and gradually identify patterns and develop new algorithms that can be used to make everything from household appliances to industrial equipment smarter and more self-sufficient.
For example, automakers are using wireless connectivity to capture and analyse enormous amounts of data about how human drivers handle cars when confronted with specific road layouts, weather conditions, traffic and accidents. The data collected by connected cars might show the majority of people drive significantly below the speed limit in wet weather on rural roads. Once it has detected that pattern, a self-driving car system would mimic this behaviour, slowing down as soon as its sensors detect wet tarmac. By learning from such examples, the computer is essentially writing its own software.
With the advent of 5G services in 2020, the Internet of Things and artificial intelligence will develop faster still, potentially delivering widespread socio-economic benefits in Europe and beyond.
But a number of cultural and political barriers could hold back the digital transformation of Europe. Policymakers and citizens alike fret about computers taking over people’s jobs and fuelling even greater inequality between the digital haves and have-nots. Equally, there are legitimate concerns about what all this real world data mining means for personal privacy and security.
With digital technologies evolving so fast, now is the time for policymakers, academics, business leaders and other stakeholders to come together to determine how to harness this highly potent technology for the greater good.
Internet Of Everything: The Best Definition You Will Find
The Internet of Everything (IoE) incorporates the Internet of Things and everything else into a single architecture. If you don’t understand what Cloud Computing and Fog Computing are, then you must read this paper thoroughly, because it is at the very heart of global Technocracy. Everything will be connected to everything else as soon as it comes online. ⁃ TN Editor
The Internet of Everything (IoE) is a concept that aims to look at the bigger picture in which the Internet of Things fits. Yet, when you look deeper at IoE, you’ll notice it really is also about the vision of a distributed network with a growing focus on the edge in times of ongoing decentralization, some digital transformation enablers and a focus on IoT business outcomes.
While the Internet of Things today mainly is approached from the perspective of connected devices, their sensing capabilities, communication possibilities and, in the end, the device-generated data which are analyzed and leveraged to steer processes and power numerous potential IoT use cases, the Internet of Everything concept wants to offer a broader view.
The Internet of Everything is coined by Cisco but also used by some other firms now and then, even if de facto in the perception of people it is mainly seen as related with Cisco and most resources come from Cisco so you’ll hear the name Cisco quite a bit in this overview (we are not affiliated in any way).
Knowing that Cisco is not just a big player in the Internet of Things landscape but also, among others takes a leading role in networks, security, technologies for human interaction (in business) and the optimization of business and industrial processes, there is also a branding aspect to the Internet of Everything.
The context of the Internet of Everything
Nevertheless, it is certainly worth to take a deeper look into it as it’s important to have a broader and more holistic view of the overarching evolutions in which the Internet of Things fit.
Moreover, even if Cisco tends to depict the Internet of Everything as a next stage in the Internet of Things, it is as much related with the Internet of Things as it is with the third platform and the hyper-connected distributed reality which is seen as the foundational technology and processes stack enabling digital transformation, with a big role for distributed networks and computing, areas which are important for Cisco.
Note that, also given the background of Cisco, with the Internet of Everything, we are more in a context of business and industry (Industrial Internet of Things), rather than the Consumer Internet of Things.
Also note that Cisco is not the only one that aims to take a broader view and push the message that the Internet of Things, no matter how important and vast it already is as such, is part of a bigger picture and cannot be seen without understanding that bigger picture.
Finally, also note that the Internet of Everything partially was conceived to transcend the rather passive IoT view and the machine-to-machine (M2M) dimension. However, M2M is just one part of the Internet of Things and we are also moving further away from the huge but rather passive approach (data from sensors) to a far more active one whereby actions in the physical world are what matters (data from sensors to physical action as a consequence). One of the furthest reaching manifestations of this is the so-called Internet of Robotic Things.
This is the context in which the origins and scope of the Internet of Everything need to be seen.
Internet of Everything: definition, value and place in a broader picture of decentralization
Originally Cisco defined the Internet of Everything as the intelligent connection of people, process, data and things.
Now Cisco’s Internet of Everything newsroom page says: “The Internet of Everything (IoE) brings together people, process, data, and things to make networked connections more relevant and valuable than ever before-turning information into actions that create new capabilities, richer experiences, and unprecedented economic opportunity for businesses, individuals, and countries”.
According to the company, with the Internet of Everything there is $14,4 trillion in “Value at Stake”. Again, this is not the Internet of Things as we sometimes read but the Internet of Everything which is not the same as you’ll read. The number also deserves an update as it was originally released in 2013, yet continues to be used. We’ve embedded the so-called Internet of Everything or IoE Value Index from 2013 below.
For Cisco the Internet of Everything is the next wave of Internet growth which, as an overarching term points at the connection of things, people, processes and data in one vast distributed network.
This distributed component also about the evolutions in computing and networking overall whereby there is a clear distributed shift, towards the edge.
These distributed models are seen everywhere in IT, in Internet of Things technologies (which already of course has a strong distributed component at the edge) and even in the ways we organize our businesses. In fact, the Internet of Things is already a decentralized given as such.
Some examples of distributed/decentralized evolutions in which the IoE contextually fits
Fog computing, a form of edge computing and also propagated by Cisco shifts analysis of IoT data to the point of origination, thus speeding up things and freeing up bandwidth and other resources in non-distributed analytics (at the edge, in the network and in some form of cloud integration).
Cybersecurity is moving away from the traditional centralized view to a decentralized approach whereby security happens as close as possible to the endpoint. This is not just about IoT security but about cybersecurity overall as the security perimeter is ubiquitous: protection (security and privacy by design, the latter one of the principles of the GDPR)happens everywhere with the endpoint being key (the mobile user, for example). It explains the success of cloud-based security.
In the latest cloud and computer network technologies there is a shift away from a centralized view towards the network elements and edges as well. In an age where software eats the world, network intelligence and virtualization, along with the injection of software defined networking turn networks and all their components in a decentralized, yet centrally manageable, reality. And with edge computing the focus is on analysis IN the network.
In document and data capturethere is a shift from traditional centralized approaches towards distributed or decentralized capture models and to hybrid approaches whereby the traditional way of centrally digitizing documents in one place is making way for these decentralized models, wherever they make sense.
In the Internet of Things and in several other applications, for instance in the finance industry and even in security, we see a growing attention for blockchain or distributed ledger technology. As the name indicates we are again talking about decentralization. More about blockchain and IoT.
The Internet of Things (IoT), is poised to explode with the advent of 5G wireless technology, connecting everything together at blazingly-fast speeds. Technocrats are focused on monitoring and tracking everything that moves. ⁃ TN Editor
The world is at an intersection of changing our everyday lives through Internet of Things (IoT), the failure thereof will stand us at risk of cybersecurity vulnerability will ever experience.
One of the core discussion when we attend Board meetings today, risk is one of the main agenda pieces that gets gray headed business leaders who know less about technology being engaged in this subject.
However, IoT is one of the best things which are currently unfolding, with many devices getting connected via the internet to send and receive data, and further perform functions remotely.
There is a phenomenon of sensors in IoT that is gaining mileage of late.
Let’s take it from a relatable scenario, a family of six in Belgium – they have an internet enabled refrigerator which has sensors that take account of everything in there from fruits, refreshments, cake and milk etc. Since milk is one of the most used items for their breakfast cereal, when the milk reaches low levels, refrigerator using a database to understand the demographics of the household, it knows that there are six people who are about to go dry.
Then it automatically connects to Walmart.com to place an order of a 12 pack of milk, including any other thing that is running out of in the refrigerator.
Barclays has installed devices that track how frequent bankers are at their desks, thought to be tracking devices called OccupEye, which use heat and motion sensors to record how long employees are spending at their desks or workstation.
In South Africa, Shyamala Vijayanath, a successful business lady who founded eSoft back in 2008 – eSoft Development and Technologies has always been ahead of the pack. Every year they come with innovative solutions to excite their existing clients and add value for their businesses – be it Mixed Reality, they have been received well in the market.
Now she has decided to venture into IoT and set up a lab in Johannesburg where ground breaking technologies will be housed and launched from. Since she has started, her business peers when they heard she is working on this new tech, they came flying offering to invest, even though she took it upon herself to invest her own resources to change the status quo in sectors such as agriculture, education and security.
In agriculture addressing various business cases and offering solutions for moisture measurement in soil and automatic irrigation control – in security, looking into emergency assistance for the needy; and applying sensors in many more sectors.
eBay Appoints Trilateral Commission Member To Board Of Directors
Diana Farrell is a globalist’s globalist; Trilateral Commission, CFR, Aspen, Bretton Woods, World Economic Forum, etc. She is the founding President and CEO of JPMorgan Chase Institute, “a global think-tank dedicated to delivering data-rich analysis and expert insights for the public good.” ⁃ TN Editor
eBay, Inc., a global commerce leader, has appointed Adriane Brown and Diana Farrell to its board of directors.
“eBay has a world-class board of directors with a broad and diverse range of experience and backgrounds. Adriane and Diana are each remarkable individuals, and they will bring additional leadership, strategy and policy expertise in a variety of sectors to eBay’s Board. I look forward to benefiting from their insights and perspectives as we position eBay to continue to be a leading global technology and commerce platform,” said Devin Wenig, President and CEO of eBay.
Ms. Brown currently is an advisor with Intellectual Ventures, LLC, where she previously served as President and Chief Operating Officer. Before that, she held a number of roles at Honeywell International, Inc., including Senior Vice President, Energy Strategy, and President and Chief Executive Officer, Honeywell Transportation Systems. Prior to that, she spent nearly 20 years at Corning, Inc., where she began her career as a shift supervisor, rising to the position of Vice President and General Manager of Corning’s Environmental Products Division. She currently serves on the Board of Directors for Allergan PLC. Ms. Brown earned a B.S. in Environmental Health from Old Dominion University and an M.S. in Management from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Ms. Farrell is the Founding President and Chief Executive Officer at JPMorgan Chase Institute, a global think tank. Prior to JPMorgan, and over the course of her career, she held a variety of roles at McKinsey & Company, Inc., serving as the Director and Global Head of the McKinsey Center for Government, Global Head and Director of the McKinsey Global Institute and Partner and Leader of the Global Financial Institutions and Strategy Practices, among other positions. Ms. Farrell also served as the Deputy Director of the National Economic Council and the Deputy Economic Advisor to the President under the Obama Administration. She began her career at Goldman Sachs. Ms. Farrell is a member of the Board of Trustees at Wesleyan University, the Urban Institute and the Trilateral Commission. She earned a B.A. in the College of Social Studies and in Economics from Wesleyan University and an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School.